1. I assume that your specimens have been printed flat?

    We use to say that printing hotter bond the layers better to each other. But I’ve never seen scientifical proof of it.

    Unfortunately if your specimens have been printed flat, in traction they are not too much subjected to delamination, so we can’t draw conclusion about this.

    Would you mind doing the same test after printing the specimens vertically, to see the influence (or not) of temperature on delamination`? (Yes, they will break quickly in traction)


    • 3D Matter

      Hi there. Thanks for your comment: you are not alone in thinking that temperature influences layer bonding. We do print our specimens flat, but we were thinking that if indeed there was a material bonding difference depending on the temperature (for PLA), we would also see it on the XY axis – maybe to a lesser extent. That being said, an extra test on the Z axis (i.e. printing the specimen vertically) would provide a definite result, so we will see if we can conduct this extra test in the next few weeks and keep the readers updated!

    • 3D Matter

      Hi Kolia,

      We conducted extra testing on samples printed vertically (Z axis) and we found that there may be a potential influence of temperature at the low end of the printing range (180-190 degrees), where performance was less good. The explanation would be that PLA becomes more viscous and therefore the adhesion between layers could become less good. Over 200 degrees, there was no difference in performance.

      I think when we conduct this test with ABS we will see sharper differences. Thanks for your comment!

  2. Ahmed

    Dear 3D matter ,
    Thaks for your great effort i research above , I would like to ask you how could I control infill pattern by 0, 90 degree and once again by +45,-45,0,90 degree ?
    Iam student and I want to work in strengthening material field .

    • 3D Matter

      Hi Ahmed,
      Yes there are ways to control the angle of the infill patterns. There are settings in most slicers that enable you to change the infill orientation in X/Y (in Slic3r, I believe it is in Print Settings > Advanced > Fill Angle), and another trick is to change the positioning of your object itself to change the relative orientation of the infill. Is this what you are after?
      3D Matter

  3. Scott Smith

    Thank you for this EXCELLENT post. It answered every question I had about speed vs quality and answered many questions I had not even thought of yet.

  4. Anthony

    I find your speed test very intriguing, the results at speeds around 60mm/s are what I would regard as unacceptable but 60mm/s is by no means fast, this is the slowest that I print on my prussa I3 printer (minly ABS). I am battling to understand why your quality of prints is so bad at anything over 30mm/s

    • 3D Matter

      Hi Anthony,
      Our prints become poor above 30mm/s for two main reasons: 1) the object we print is very small and 2) it has a lot of intricate details. Actually, the default software parameters would not even print at these speeds, we have to turn off “auto-cooling” to be able to print such a small object at such high speed (by default, it needs to take at least 30s per layer if I remember correctly).
      We can print larger, simpler objects at 100mm/s (or more) and still be fine, but for this particular object it becomes bad very quickly. So the quality curve is not an absolute curve, but more of a relative one. You can think about it as: “if you double the speed, the quality is divided by 2 or 3”.
      I hope this helps!

  5. indy

    Was each cross-sectional area measured for the extrusion temperature test? I would think that lower temperatures would extrude less material out of the nozzle. This would affect the results of your test.

    • 3D Matter

      Hi Indy, we do measure the cross-sectional area for all our tests, and the temperature does not seem to influence it. However, you are right that less material is extruded as you get to low temperatures for PLA (around 180C), but it transpires in a lower weight for the specimen. The volume stays the same but the object is more porous.

      Working on ABS at the moment, we see that this effect is much more pronounced, and not only at low temperatures. We will try to post something about it in the coming months.

  6. I Love you guys! I was curious so I googled what the effect of extrusion temp was on print strength and up popped a detailed report well explained by a reputable organization. Keep up the great work!

  7. Chris

    Hi guys great work, I’m currently involved in a print project and am concerned with bonding and strength. After, and before, your findings I have wondered about room temp or the difference between print temp and cure temp? Maybe 6o degrees to 90 degrees. Any thoughts?your information has been useful. Thanks Chris

    • 3D Matter

      Hi Chris, while we have not yet published it, we have done some research showing that the ambient temperature increases layer adhesion. That’s why a heated chamber, or even a closed chamber retaining heat, lead to better performance along the Z-axis. Our hypothesis is that the chamber needs to be at a temperature that is close to the material’s glass transition temperature (Tg) so that the material extruded cools down enough to solidify, but that the previous layer is hot enough to bond with it.

      However, all the results we have in our studies online are at an ambient temperature of 25C.

  8. This answers majority of apprehensions regarding printing parameters.Majority of the parts printed used for visual appearance, when we used this for functional prototypes we had difficulty to understand the behavior. Do you have any test data of effect of infill angle on the strength?Thanks for detailed study.

    • 3D Matter

      Hi Surya, we have some high level data on “diagonal” pattern (45/45 degrees) vs. “linear” pattern (0/90 degrees) in this study] and we have much more in-depth data available on our material platform OptiMatter.If you select the different “infill patterns” on OptiMatter for any material, you can see how they influence the behavior.

  9. sahara

    Thank you for this excellent work.
    Can you explain about the difference between no-colored filament and colored one?
    And, I would like to know about white filament.

    • 3D Matter

      As stated in the article, we think that the pigment itself usually has little influence on the filament’s performance, and that the differences observed are usually batch-to-batch discrepancies.

      Do you have a specific experience with white filaments that was unsatisfactory?

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